Research Outputs

STOP PRESS: (updated 11 April 2017)

Summary of Research Outcomes and Impact Document

Funding for the CRE in Rural and Remote Primary Health Care has now finished.  Thank you to all who contributed to the success of the CRERRPHC.  A summary document has been prepared to celebrate the outcomes and impact of the research undertaken by the CRERRPHC.  Please click here to obtain a copy, or contact Lisa Lavey ( for an electronic or hard copy.

2011-2015 CRERRPHC Reports to APHCRI

To access the 1:3:25 Reports relating to the research undertaken by the CRERRPHC for the period 2011-2015 (includes the 2015 extension funding), please go to:

Index of Access for Primary Health Care in Australia

Please click here to access a copy of the Discussion Paper on the development of a national Index of Access for Primary Health Care in Australia.

2011-2014 CRERRPHC Reports to APHCRI

To access the 1:3:25 Reports relating to the research undertaken by the CRERRPHC for the period 2011-2014, please go to:

Promotional Material

CRE Brochure - See Pdf

In press and online early publications

Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. McGrail M, Russell D & HumphreysJ (In Press). Rural health service planning: The importance of how 'access' to primary health care is measured, Australian Health Review.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Chisholm M & Ward B (2017). Older men's experiences of accessing general practitioner services in rural areas, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 25(4): 252-253.
  2. Lyle D, Saurman E, Kirby S, Jones D, Humphreys J & Wakerman J (2017). What do evaluations tell us about implementing new models in rural and remote primary health care? Findings from a narrative analysis of seven service evaluations conducted by an Australian Centre of Research Excellence, Rural and Remote Health, 17:3926.
  3. McGrail MR, Russell DJ & Humphreys JS (2017). Index of Access: a new innovative and dynamic tool for rural health service and workforce planningAustralian Health Review, 41(5): 485-491.
  4. McGrail MR, Wingrove PM, Petterson SM, Humphreys JS, Russell DJ & Bazemore (2017). Measuring the attractiveness of rural communities in accounting for differences of rural primary care workforce supply, Rural and Remote Health, 17: 3925.
  5. Russell DJ & McGrail MR (2017). How does the workload and work activities of procedural GPs compare to non-procedural GPs?Australian Journal of Rural Health, 25(4): 219-226.
  6. Russell D, McGrail M & Humphreys JS (2017). Determinants of rural Australian primary health care worker retention: A synthesis of key evidence and implications for policymaking, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 25(1): 5-14.
  7. Spooner C, Lavey L, Mukuka C & Eames-Brown R (2017). Multi-institutional Research Centers: Planning and Management Challenges, The Journal of Research Administraiton, 47(2): 32-48.
  8. Thomas SL, Wakerman J & Humphreys JS (2017). What does it cost to provide equity of access to high quality, comprehensive primary health care in rural Australia? A pilot study, Rural and Remote Health, 17(4019).
  9. Wakerman J, Sparro L, Thomas SL, Humphreys JS & Jones M (2017). Equitable resourcing of primary health care in remote communities in Australia's Northern Territory: a pilot study, BMC Family Practice, 18:75.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. McGrail MR & Russell DJ (2016). Australia's rural medical workforce: Supply from its medical schools against career stage, gender and rural-origin, Australian Journal of Rural Health, online DOI: 10.1111/ajr.12323
  2. Meade C, Ward B & Cronin H (2016). Implementation of a team model for RACF care by a general practice, Australian Family Physician, 45(4): 218-222.
  3. Russell D & Humphreys JS (2016). Meeting the primary healthcare needs of small rural communities: Lessons for health service planners (Elmore longitudinal study), Rural and Remote Health, 16 (3695): 1-12.
  4. Saurman E (2016). Improving access: modifying Penchansky and Thomas’s Theory of Access, Journal of Health Services Research & Policy, 21(1): 36-39.
  5. Schmidt DD & Kirby S (2016). Project Report: A modular approach to rural and remote research education: a project report, Rural and Remote Health, 16(3609): 1-9.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Bath J & Wakerman J (2015). Impact of community participation in primary health care: what is the evidence?, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 21(1): 2-8.
  2. Carroll V, Reeve CA, Humphreys JS, Wakerman J & Carter M (2015). Re-orienting a remote acute care model towards a primary health care approach: key enablers, Rural and Remote Health, 15(2942): 1-7.
  3. McGrail MR & Humphreys JS (2015). Geographical mobility of general practitioners in rural Australia, Medical Journal of Austrlalia, 203(2): 92-97.
  4. McGrail MR, Humphreys JS & Ward B (2015). Accessing doctors at times of need-measuring the distance tolerance of rural residents for health-related travel, BMC Health Services Research, 15(212): 1-9.
  5. Reeve C, Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Carter M, Carroll V & Reeve D (2015). Strengthening primary health care: achieving health gains in a remote region of Australia, Medical Journal of Australia, 202(9): 483-488.
  6. Reeve C, Humphreys J, Wakerman J, Carroll V, Carter M, O'Brien T, Erlank C, Mansour R & Smith B (2015). Community participation in health service reform: the development of an innovative remote Aboriginal primary health-care service, Australian Journal of Primary Health, online:
  7. Saurman E, Kirby SE & Lyle D (2015). No longer 'flying blind': how access has changed emergency mental health care in rural and remote emergency departments, a qualitative study, BMC Health Services Research, 15(156): 1-11.
  8. Wakerman J (2015). Rural and remote health: a progress report, Medical Journal of Australia, 202(9): 461-463.
  9. Ward B, Humphreys J, McGrail M, Wakerman J & Chisholm M (2015). Which dimensions of access are most important when rural residents decide to visit a general practitioner for non-emergency care?, Australian Health Review, 39 (2): 121-126.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Bell D, Lindeman MA & Reid JB (2014). The (mis)matching of resources and assessed need in remote Aboriginal community aged care, Australasian Journal on Ageing. Online early.
  2. Carey TA (2014). Defining Australian Indigenous Wellbeing: Do we really want the answer? Implications for Policy and Practice, Psychotherapy and Politics International, 11(3): 182-194.
  3. Chondur R, Li SQ, Guthridge S & Lawton P (2014). Does relative remoteness affect chronic disease outcomes? Geographic variation in chronic disease mortality in Australia, 2002-2006, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health, 38(2): 117-121.
  4. Dingwall KM, Lindeman MA & Cairney S (2014). "You've got to make it relevant": barriers and ways forward for assessing cognition in Aboriginal clients, BMC Psychology, 2(13): 1-11.
  5. Gador-Whyte AP, Wakerman J, Campbell D, Lenthall S, Struber J, Hope A & Watson C (2014). Cost of best-practice primary care management of chronic disease in a remote Aboriginal community, Medical Journal of Australia, 200(11): 663-666.
  6. Jones M, Bushnell JA & Humphreys JS (2014). Are rural placements positively associated with rural intentions in medical graduates? Medical Education, 48(4): 405-416.
  7. Kuipers P, Harvey D, Lindeman MA & Stothers K (2014). Commentary: Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander health practitioners in rural areas: credentialing, context and capacity building, Rural and Remote Health, 14(2897): 1-6.
  8. Lindeman MA, Dingwall KM & Bell D (2014). Towards better preparation and support for health and social care practitioners conducting specialised assessments in remote Indigenous contexts, Australian Journal of Social Issues, 49(4): 445-465.
  9. Lindeman MA,Kuipers P & Grant L (2014). Front-line worker perspectives on Indigenous youth suicide in Central Australia: Contributors and prevention strategies, International Journal of Emergency Mental Health and Human Resilience, 17(1): 191-196.
  10. Marken RS & Carey TA (2014). Understanding the change process involved in solving psychological problems: A model-based approach to understanding how psychotherapy works, Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, online early.
  11. McGrail MR & Humphreys JS (2014). Measuring spatial accessibility to primary health care services: Utilising dynamic catchment sizes, Applied Geography, 54(2014): 182-188.
  12. Saurman E,Johnston J, Hindman J, Kirby S & Lyle D (2014). A transferable telepsychiatry model for improving access to emergency mental health care, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 20(7): 391-399.
  13. Saurman E, Lyle D, Kirby S & Roberts R (2014). Use of a mental health emergency care-rural access programme in emergency departments, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, 20(6): 324-329.
  14. Saurman E, Lyle D, Kirby S & Roberts R (2014). Assessing program efficiency - a time and motion study of the Mental Health Emergency Care-Rural Access Program in NSW Australia, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 11(8): 7678-7689.
  15. Saurman E, Lyle D, Perkins & Roberts R (2014). Successful provision of emergency mental health care to rural and remote NSW – an evaluation of the Mental Health Emergency Care – Rural Access Program, Australian Health Review, 38(1): 58-64.
  16. Tham R, Buykx P, Kinsman L, Ward B, Humphreys JS, Asaid A, Tuohey K & Jenner R (2014). Staff perceptions of primary healthcare service change: influences on staff satisfaction, Australian Health Review, 38(5): 580-583.
  17. Thomas SL, Wakerman J & Humphreys JS (2014). What core primary health care services should be available to Australians living in rural and remote communities?, BMC Family Practice, 15(143): 1-9. Highly accessed.
  18. Thomas S, Zhao Y, Guthridge S & Wakerman J (2014). The cost effectiveness of primary care for Indigenous Australians with diabetes living in remote Northern Territory communities, Medical Journal of Australia, 200(11): 658-662.
  19. Ward, B, Buykx P, Tham R, Kinsman L & Humphreys JS (2014). Investing in longitudinal studies of primary healthcare: what can we learn about service performance, sustainability and quality? Rural and Remote Health, 14(3059): 1-6.
  20. Zhao Y, Thomas SL, Guthridge SL & Wakerman J (2014). Better health outcomes at lower costs: the benefits of primary care utilisation for chronic disease management in remote Indigenous communities in Australia's Northern Territory, BMC Health Services Research, 14(463): 1-9. Highly accessed.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Amsters D, Kendall M, Schuurs S, Lindeman M & Kuipers P (2013). Allied health professionals as consultants: An exploratory study in an Australian context, The Internet Journal of Allied Health Sciences and Practice, 11(3): 1-10.
  2. Cameron H, Boreland F, Morris J, Lyle D, Perkins D, Magin P, Marshall M & Zwar N (2013). New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Research Development Program 2005-07: modest investment, considerable outcomes, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 19(1): 59-67.
  3. Carey TA (2013). A qualitative study of a social and emotional wellbeing service for remote Indigenous Australians: Implications for access, effectiveness, and sustainability, BMC Health Services Research, 13(80): 1-11. doi: 10.1186/1472-6963-13-80.
  4. Carey T, Tai SJ & Stiles WB (2013). Effective and efficient: Using patient-led appointment scheduling in routine mental health practice in remote Australia, Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 44(6): 405-414.
  5. Carey T, Wakerman J, Humphreys JS, Buykx P & Lindeman M (2013). What primary health care services should residents of rural and remote Australia be able to access? A systematic review of ‘core’ primary health care services. BMC Health Services Research, 13(178): 1-8.
  6. ŸDaly M, Perkins D, Kumar K, Roberts C & Moore M (2013). What factors in rural and remote extended clinical placements may contribute to preparedness for practice from the perspective of students and clinicians? Medical Teacher, 35(11); 900-907.
  7. Daly M, Roberts C, Kumar K & Perkins D (2013). Longitudinal integrated rural placements: a social learning systems perspective, Medical Education, 47(4): 352-361.
  8. Dingwall KM, Pinkerton J & Lindeman MA (2013). “People like Numbers”: a descriptive study of cognitive assessment methods in clinical practice for Aboriginal Australians in the Northern Territory, BMC Psychiatry, 13:(42): 1-13.
  9. Lindeman MA & Flouris A (2013). Youth program workforce in remote Indigenous communities: what do we need and what can we expect?, New Community, 11(43): 61-67.
  10. Lopes J, Flouris A & Lindeman MA (2013). Youth programs in Central Australian Indigenous communities,Youth Studies Australia, 32(1): 55-62. 
  11. Perkins D, Fuller J, Kelly BJ, Lewin TJ, Fitzgerald M, Coleman C, Inder KJ, Allan J, Arya D, Roberts R & Buss R (2013). Factors associated with reported service use for mental health problems by residents of rural and remote communities: cross-sectional findings from a baseline survey, BMC Health Services Research, 13(157): 1-13.
  12. Russell D, Humphreys JS, McGrail M, Cameron WI & Williams PJ (2013). The value of survival analyses for evidence-based rural medical workforce planning, Human Resources for Health, 11(65): 1-9.
  13. Russell D, Humphreys JS, Ward B, Chisholm M, Buykx P, McGrail M & Wakerman J (2013). Helping policymakers address rural health access problems, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 21(2): 61-71.
  14. Russell D, Wakerman J & Humphreys J (2013). What is a reasonable length of employment for health workers in Australian rural and remote primary health care services?, Australian Health Review, 37(2): 256-261.
  15. Schouten K, Lindeman MA & Reid J (2013). Nutrition and older Indigenous Australians: service delivery implications in remote communities.  A narrative review, Australasian Journal on Ageing, 32(4): 204-210.

Peer reviewed full conference papers:

  1. Lindeman MA, Taylor KA, Dingwall K, Lopes J, Reid JB & Grant L (2013). Towards systematic data collection and referral pathways for Indigenous youth suicide attempts. 12th National Rural Health Conference, Adelaide, 7-10 April 2013.

Research Reports:

  1. Taylor KA, Dingwall K, Lopes J, Grant L & Lindeman MA Aboriginal youth suicide in Central Australia: developing a consistent data system and referral pathway. Alice Springs: Centre for Remote Health and Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, 2013.
  2. Lindeman MA, Flouris A & Lopes J Youth programs in remote Central Australian Aboriginal communities. Alice Springs: Centre for Remote Health and Central Australian Youth Link Up Service, 2013.

CRERRPHC-related peer-reviewed journal articles:

  1. Bourke L, Taylor J, Humphreys JS & Wakerman J (2013). “Rural health is subjective, everyone sees it differently”: Understandings of rural health among Australian stakeholders, Health & Place, 24(November 2013): 65-72.
  2. Carey TA(2013). Exposure and reorganization : The what and how of effective psychotherapy, Clinical Psychology Review, 31(2): 236-248.
  3. Dowling MJ & Carey TA (2013). Victims of bullying: whom they seek help from and why: an Australian sample, Psychology in the Schools, 50(8): 798-809.
  4. Duncan C, Williams K, Nathanson D, Thomas S, Cottier C, O’Meara M & Zwi K (2013). Emergency department presentations by Aboriginal children: Issues for consideration for appropriate health services, Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health, 49(9): E448-E450
  5. Fragar L, Inder KJ, Kelly BJ, Coleman C, Perkins D & Lewin TJ (2013). Unintentional injury, psychological distress and depressive symptoms: is there an association for rural Australians?, The Journal of Rural Health, 29(1): 12-19.
  6. Hills DJ, Joyce CM & Humphreys JS (2013). Workplace aggression prevention and minimisation in Australian clinical medical practice settings – a national study, Australian Health Review, 37(5): 607-613.
  7. Jones M, Eley D, Lampe L, Coulton CM, Malhli GS, Wilson I, Kelly B, Talley NJ, Owen C, Corrigan G, Griffin B & Humphreys JS (2013). Role of personality in medical students’ initial intention to become rural doctors, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 21(2): 80-89.
  8. Kirby S,Dennis SM, Bazeley P & Harris MF (2013). Activating patients with chronic disease for self-management: comparison of self-managing patients with those managing by frequent readmissions to hospital, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 19(3): 198-206.
  9. Kirby S,Vagholkar S, Bunker J, Dennis SM, Mutimbe M & Liaw S-T (2013). How integrated are services for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease? Perceptions of patients and health care providers, Australian Journal of Primary Health, online (early) : 1-4
  10. Laws PA, Fanaian M, Jayasinghe UW, McKenzie S, Passey M, Powell Davies G, Lyle D & Harris MF (2013). Factors influencing participation in a vascular disease prevention lifestyle program among participants in a cluster randomized trial, BMC Health Services Research, 13(201): 1-12.
  11. Merritt J, Perkins D & Boreland F (2013). Regional and remote occupational therapy: A preliminary exploration of private occupational therapy practice, Australian Occupational Therapy Journal, 60(4): 276-287.
  12. Murphy B, Ludeman D, Elliott P, Judd F, Humphreys JS, Edington J, Jackson A & Worcester M (2013). Red flags for persistent or worsening anxiety and depression after an acute cardiac event: a 6 month longitudinal study in regional and rural Australia, European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, Online: 1-11.
  13. Rotter T, Kinsman L, Machotta A, Zhao F-L, van der Weijden T, Ronellenfitsch U & Scott SD (2013). Clinical pathways for primary care: effects on professional practice, patient outcomes, and costs (Protocol), Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, online (8): 1-12.
  14. Scott A, Witt J, Humphreys JS, Joyce C, Kalb G, Jeon S-H &McGrail M (2013). Getting doctors into the bush: General Practitioners’ preferences for rural location, Social Sciences & Medicine, 96(2013): 33-44.
  15. Thomas S, Boreland F & Lyle D (2013). Improving participation by Aboriginal children in blood lead screening services in Broken Hill, NSW, NSW Public Health Bulletin, 23(11-12): 234-238.
  16. Zhao Y, Condon JR, Li SQ, Guthridge S & Chondur R (2013). Indigenous patient migration patterns after hospitalisation and the potential impacts on mortality estimates, Australasian Journal of Regional Studies, 19(3): 321-341.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Bullbrook KM, Carey TA, Lenthall S, Byers L & Behan KP (2012). Treating mental health in remote communities: what do remote health practitioners need? Rural and Remote Health, 12: 2346. (online). Available:
  2. Buykx P, Humphreys JS, Tham R, Kinsman L, Wakerman J, Asaid A & Tuohey K (2012). How do small rural primary health care services sustain themselves in a constantly changing health system environment, BMC Health Services Research, 12(81) 1-7.
  3. Buykx P, Humphreys JS, Wakerman J, Perkins D, Lyle D, McGrail M & Kinsman L (2012)."Making evidence count” – A framework to monitor the impact of health services research, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(2); 51-58.
  4. Cameron HE, Boreland FT, Morris JR, Lyle DM, Perkins DA, Magin PJ, Marshall MJ & Zwar NA (2012). New South Wales and Australian Capital Territory Research Development Program 2005-07: modest investment, considerable outcomes, Australian Journal of Primary Health, 1-9
  5. Humphreys JS & Gregory G (2012). Celebrating another decade of progress in rural health: What is the current state of play?, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(3): 156-163.
  6. Humphreys JS, McGrail MR, Joyce CM, Scott A & Kalb G (2012). Who should receive recruitment and retention incentives? Improved targeting of rural doctors using medical workforce data, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(1): 3-10.
  7. Jones MP, Humphreys JS  & McGrail MR (2012). Why does a rural background make medical students more likely to intend to work in rural areas and how consistent is the effect? A study of the rural background effect, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(1): 29-34.
  8. Jones MP, Humphreys JS  & Nicholson T (2012). Is personality the missing link in understanding recruitment and retention of rural general practitioners?, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(2): 74-79.
  9. Kinsman LD, Rotter T, Willis J, Snow P, Buykx P & Humphreys JS (2012). Do clinical pathways enhance access to evidence-based acute myocardial infarction treatment in rural emergency departments?, Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(2): 59-66.
  10. Lindeman MA, Taylor KA, Kuipers P, Stothers K & Piper K (2012). ‘We don’t have anyone with dementia here’: a case for better intersectoral collaboration for remote Indigenous clients with dementia. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 20(4): 190-194.
  11. LoGiudice D, Smith K, Shadforth G, Lindeman MA, Carroll E, Atkinson D, Schaper F, Lautenschlager N, Murphy R, & Flicker L (2012). Lungurra Ngoora: A pilot model of care for aged and disabled in a remote Aboriginal community. Can it work? Rural and Remote Health, 2078(online): 1-11.
  12. Lopes J, Lindeman MA, Taylor KA & Grant L (2012). Cross cultural education in suicide prevention: development of a training resource for use in Central Australian Indigenous communities. Advances in Mental Health, 10(3): 224-234.
  13. McGrail MR (2012). Spatial accessibility of primary health care utilising the two step floating catchment area method: an assessment of recent improvements, International Journal of Health Geographics, 11(50): 1-12.  doi:10.1186/1476-072X-11-50.
  14. Russell D, Humphreys J & Wakerman J (2012). How best to measure health workforce turnover and retention: five key metrics, Australian Health Review, 36(3): 290-295.
  15. Russell D, McGrail M, Humphreys JS & Wakerman J (2012). What factors contribute most to the retention of general practitioners in rural and remote areas? Australian Journal of Primary Health, 18(4): 289-294.
  16. Taylor KA, Lindeman MA, Stothers K, Piper K & Kuipers P (2012). Intercultural communications in remote Aboriginal Australian communities: what works in dementia education and management? Health Sociology Review, 21(2): 208-219. 
  17. Wakerman J, Curry R & McEldowney R (2012). Fly in/fly out health services: the panacea or the problem?, Rural and Remote Health, 12:2268 (online).  Available:
  18. Wakerman J & Humphreys JS (2012). Sustainable workforce, sustainable health systems for rural and remote Australia, Medical Journal of Australia Open, Suppl 3: 14-17.

Peer reviewed full conference papers:

  1. Jensen, H., Logiudice, D., Smith, K., Lindeman, M.A., Flicker, L. & Atkinson, D. (2012). Pathways to care for Indigenous people with dementia in Central Australia. Services for Australian Rural and Remote Allied Health (SARRAH), Launceston, 20-23 Sept 2012.
  2. Lindeman, M.A. & Jensen, H. (2012). Dementia in Indigenous communities: a 'knowledge-to action' professional development program for remote practitioners. Services for Australian Rural and Remote Allied Health (SARRAH), Launceston, 20-23 Sept 2012.


Peer Reviewed Journal Articles

  1. Carey, T.A.(2011). As you like it: adopting a patient-led approach to psychological treatments, Journal of Public Mental Health, 10(1): 6-16.
  2. Carey, T.A., Bell-Booth, R., Coyne, J., Madgen, C. & Nixon, R.D.V. (2011). Going Bush: The experience of remote postgraduate psychology placements, InPsych The Bulletin of the Australian Psychology Society Ltd, June 2011: 26-27.

Non-Peer-reviewed publications:

  1. Wakerman, J. (2011). Understanding the messy policy process and how to influence it.  Croakey: The Crikey Health blog. See

Related Papers:

  1. Wakerman, J. & Humphreys, J.S. (2011). Sustainable primary health care services in rural and remote areas: innovation and evidence. Australian Journal of Rural Health/Journal of Rural Health, 19(3): 118-124.